INTERNET
 :
  |    

/

 /

1 | 2

/ /, . .

C2H2 -; H:C C:H -; H:C: : :C:H . -.

, . 3 - C-H; C-C; C-H. C =>sp-. 2p C - . 2 . C-C 0,120 . 3- - -.

. -:

I. . , , 3- .

1. (. H2)

C2H2+H2>C2H4; C2H4+H2>C2H6

HC CH+H-H>H2C=CH2; H2C CH2+H-H>H3C-CH3

2.: C2H2+2Cl2>C2H2Cl4

3. ( )

C3H4+2HBr>C3H6Br2; HC=C-CH3HBr>H2C=C-CH3;

4

2--1Br

4.. (. )

O

C2H2+H2O>CH3-C

H

II..

1. C2H2+3O2>2CO2+H2O+Q

2. -.

). - KMnO4 CH HC+4O>HOOC-HOOC

).

III.. ( -) - - Ag

CH CH+Ag2O>CAg CAg+H2O

IV.. . C2H2

3C2H2>C6H6

: 1).2CH4>C2H2+2H2

2). CaC2+2H2O>C2H2+Ca(OH)2

- =O

H

. Ÿ ࠠ (H-C=O)

H

R-; - . . .

: -

R-CH2-O-H+O>R-C=O+H2O

H


- :

CH4+O2>H-C=O+H2O

8

H

- , .

2CH3OH+O2>2H-C=O+H2O

(- )

H-C C-H+H2O>CH3-C=O

H

- . -, -.

:

:

R-C=O+Ag2O>R-C=O+2Ag

H OH

, . .

:

R-C=O+2CH(OH)2>R-C=O+2CuOH+H2O

H OH

- -, . .

H-C=O+HH>H3C-OH

H

:

, . , .

CH3-CH2-C=O+Br2>CH3-CH-C=O+HBr

H Br H

-

CH2OC+C6H5OH>. a

-

2CH2-CH2+O2>2[CH2=CH-OH]>2CH3-C=O

H

: /-.

/

3

H H

C2H4-; C=C - -

H H

H:C::C:H -

- /

H H

1. CnH2n ࠠ C=C - ()

H H

H H

2. CnH2n-2 /⠠ C=C-C=C - ()

H H H H

3. CnH2n-2 H-C=C-H ()

, -.

3 - (C-C; C-H; C-H), sp2 , 1200, . 0,134 .

4p-. , . . -, .. . 1p- (p- -.). 2- . , .. p-.

/ / - CnH2n 2- , / . .

CnH2n -. -.

C2H4 CH2=CH2 ,

C2H6 CH2=CH-CH3 ,

C4H8 CH2=CH-CH2-CH3 ,

C5H10 CH2=CH-CH2-CH2-CH3 ,

C6H12 CH2=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 ,

. -: 2-4 , ; C5-C18 ; C19- - -, / H2O

. - /:

I. : C2H4+3O2>2CO2+2H2O+Q

II. .

). : C2H4+H2>C2H6; CH2=CH2+H-H>CH3-CH3

). : C3H6+Br2>C3H6Br2; CH2=CH-CH3+Br-Br>CH2-CH-CH3 Br

Br 1,2-

).: C2H4+H2O>C2H2OH; CH2=CH2+HOH>CH3-CH2-OH

).. ( . ). H2 . C 2- , . C.

C3H6+HCl>C3H7Cl; CH2=CH-CH3+HCl>CH3-CH-CH3

Cl 2-

III. . , .

nCH3=CH2>(-CH2-CH2-)n, n- , (-CH2-CH2-)

IV. . - /

). . - KMnO4: CH2=CH2+O+H2O>CH2-CH2-

OH OH

). . Br2: CH2=CH2+Br2>CH2-CH2 1,2- Br Br

. / . /, . .

CH

-ࠠ CH CH . - C6H6-

CH CH

. - ࠠ CH

I. . : 1).2C6H6+15O2>12CO2+6H2O+Q

2). ., -, . . ( ).

O

5

C6H5-CH3+3O>C6H5-C +H2O

OH

II.. . 3).

C6H6+Br2>C6H5Br+HBr

4). C6H6+HONO2>C6H5NO2+H2O

III. . ; 5).

C6H6+3H2>C6H12

6). C6H6+3Cl2>C6H6Cl6

. . . / -.

. , . /, . . , .. - . .

. : . , .

. 1.

2.

3.

4. /

5. . , .

6.

7. . .

- / .


, . /. R-OH R-- 65 . - . , .

: . . : C6H6>C6H5Cl>C6H5OH

7

: .


- , t=40,90. , t=700C . .

: .


-: 2C6H6OH+2Na>2C6H5ONa+H2

:

.

.:C6H5OH+NaOH C6H5ONa+H2O

, .. . (3). . .

:

1.

7.

2. .

8. *

3.

9. *

4.

10. *.

5.

11.

6. .

12. -

(- * )

- (=O,-H)

. Ÿ ࠠ (H-C(=O,H)

R-; - . . .

: -

R-CH2-O-H+O>R-C=O+H2O

H


- :

8

CH4+O2>H-C=O+H2O

H

- , .

2CH3OH+O2>2H-C=O+H2O

(- )

H-C C-H+H2O>CH3-C=O

H

- . -, -.

:

:

R-C=O+Ag2O>R-C=O+2Ag

H OH

, . .

:

R-C=O+2CH(OH)2>R-C=O+2CuOH+H2O

H OH

- -, . .

H-C=O+HH>H3C-OH

H

:

, . , .

CH3-CH2-C=O+Br2>CH3-CH-C=O+HBr

H Br H

-

CH2OC+C6H5OH>. a

-

2CH2-CH2+O2>2[CH2=CH-OH]>2CH3-C=O

H

: /-.

. . . . - , . / H2.

O: O

R : C R-C =R-COO-+H+ . . -

:O : H OH , . , . - H2 .

O (- -).

R-C

O-H

- HCOOH- -, . , .

2- - ; - .

3- .

4- : I. :

5- 2R-C=O ONa+H2SO4>Na2SO4+2R-C(=O,-OH); 2CH3-(CH2)16-

6- -C(=O,-Na)+H2SO4>Na2S04+2CH3-(CH2)16-C(=O,-OH)

9

18- II. - /:

1. 2CH3+3O2>4CH3-C(=O,-OH)+2H2O

2. 2C4H10+5O2>4CH3-C(=O,-OH)+2H2O

III. : R-CH3O+[O2]>R-C(=O,-OH)+H2O

IV. : 2R-C(=O,-H)+O2>2R-C(=O,-OH)

V. . :

1. R-OH+CO>R-C(=O,-OH)

2. CO+NaOH>HCOONa; HCOONa+H2SO4>HCOOH+NaHSO4

. -: . . , . H2O. - - . - CH3-(CH2)7-COOH . - , . H2O.

. -

1. - ( H2) 2C(=O,-OH)=H+R-CO(=O)

2. . 2R-C(=O,-OH)+Mg>(R-COO)2Mg+H2

R-COO-+2H++Mg0>2CH3COO-+Mg2++H20; 2H++Mg0>Mg2++H20

3. .

2R-COOH-MgO>(RCOO)2Mg+H2O

4. . -

2R-COOH+CaCO3>(R-COO)2Ca+H2CO3(-H2O,-CO3)

5. CH3-COOH CH3-C(=O,-O)

CH3-COOH> CH3-C(=O,O) +H2O -

6. .

CH3-COOH+HO-C2H11>H2SO4CH3-C(=O,-O-C3H4)+H2O

.

7. CH3-COOH+Cl2>Cl-CH2-C(=O,-OH)+HCl -

. - -. . . . . -. (. . ). HCOOH+Ag2O>H2OHOC(=O,-OH)+2Ag

HOCOOH=H2O+CO2. . H2SO4, H2O . (II): HC(=O,-OH)>H2SO4, t H2O+CO2

H O

H>C>C

H O-H

. ). HCOOH; 1. . - - -; 2. ; 3. 1,25% -

). CH3COOH; 1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; 5. . ; 6.

.

13

( )

:NH2

C : NH2

HC CH

1. C6H5-NH2 2. HC CH 3.

CH

. NH2 .

, / , , - .

- , -. . H2, .

Fe+2HCl>FeCl2+2H

C6H5-NO2+6H>C6H5-NH2+2H2O

. .

:

R-CH-COOH; R-H,CH3; HO-CH2; .

NH2

- a .

: . (C, H, O, N)

: (Fe, S, P, .)

: , , , .

( 19)

()- .

O H O H O

H2N-CH2-C +N-CH-C + N-CH-C>

16

OH H CH3 OH H CH2 H

5H

O H O H O

>H2N-CH2-C + N-CH3 +C-N-CH2-C+H2O

OH H CH2 H

5H

:

. ( ). - . . - .

) - +HNO3> .

)

- +- NaOH+- CHSO4>

. , , , , .

- - .

:

1.  

2.  

3.  

:

1. . -

2. : /, .

- .

- :

1.   -

2.  

3.   -.

4.  

5.  

/:

1.

: , , .

/, .

: ( ..)

:1.

20

2. >

3. 堠

2..

/ (, , )

, .

-

, , ,

, .

(40-2000-),(450-2500-)

(180-3100-)(190-3500-)...

3.-

12.,

:

(C6H10O5)n-

1. .

2. : -20%,-80%.

a- .

a- .

: , , , , .

:

1. - I2.

(C6H10O5)n+I2-> .

2. - H2O ( )

(C6H10O5)n+ nH2O-H2SO4>nC6H12O6

1811. .

:

(C6H10O5)n->(C6H10O5)m->xC12H22O11->nC6H12O6-> .

3.- .

12

6CO2+6H2O->6H12O6+ 6O2

n6H12O6->(C6H10O5)n +nH2O

:

1. , -, .

:

(C6H10O5)n- .

.

b- , .

:

- , , , , , , , . (2) , .

. -.

1. :

(C6H10O5)n+ nH2O-H2SO4>nC6H12O6

2..:

(6H7O2)-3OH +2nHONO2-H2SO4>(C6H7O2 ) O-NO2 O-NO2 + 2nH2O

n OH n

3.

4. , 4

5. , . , , , -, .

:

1. - , , , -.

15

15. .

:

nCH2=CH2-t,p>(- CH2-CH2-)n-

- - . . - (). - .

: (- CH2-CH2-)n . t, t (IV), t , . >Mr .

18. -.

18

- . . s-s-;s-p- .

.

1. .

: )CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3

) CH3-CH-CH2-CH3 2-

17

CH3

) CH3

CH3--CH3 2,2-

CH3

2. 3

C4H6-

)CH3-CH2-=H 1-

) CH3-C=-CH3 2-

3. .

37O2N

NH2- CH2-CH2-C(=O,-OH) 3-

CH2-CH-(=,-)2-

4., . 1733O- -

) H H

C C

CH3(H2)7 CH3(H2)7-COOH

) CH3-(H2)7 ͠

=Ѡ -

͠ (H2)7

- -

, . .

- . . . .: C17H35COOH C15H31COOH .

. . . . . C17H33COOH-, C17H31COOH- C17H29COOH.

CH2-O-C(=O,-R1)

CH-O-C(=O,-R2)

CH2-O-C(=O,-R3)

, , . . .

. -: , ( ). -, . . ( ).

. -. 1.

R-C(=O,-O-R1)+H2O>R-C(=O,-OH+R1OH)

2..

C17H35-C(=O,-O-CH2) C17H35-C(=O,-O-Na) CH2-OH

C17H33-C(=O,-O-CH) +3NaOH>t C17H33-C(=O,-O-Na) + CH-OH

C17H31-C(=O,-O-CH2) C17H31-C(=O,-O-Na) CH2-OH

10

3.. . .

C17H33(=O,-O-CH2) C17H35-C(=O,-O-CH2)

C17H31(=O,-O-CH) +6H>t, p, Ni C17H35-C(=O,-O-CH)

C17H29(=O,-O-CH2) C17H35-C(=O,-O-CH2)

: - : )., ).; . :

2CH3(CH2)34CH3+502>2H2O+4CH3(CH2)16-C(=O,-OH)

-

C17H35COOH+NaOH>C17H35COONaOH+H2O

).

C17H35COOH+KOH>t C17H35COOK+H2O

2C17H35COOH+K2CO3>t 2C17H35COOK+H2O+CO2

). (): H2SO4.

R-CH2-OH-K2-O-SO2-OH>R-CH2-O-SO2-OH-H2O

R-CH2-O-SO2-OH-NaOH>R-CH2-O-SO2-ONa-H2O

. .

. : , , , .

. -: - , , .

. C6H12O6

1. - +Cu(OH)2> - => OH-=>

2.- +Cu(OH)2>t =>. C(=O,-H) =>

CH2-CH-CH-CH-CH-C(=O,-H)

11

OH OH OH OH OH

. CH2COH

CH-OH O CH-O

CH C > CH CH

OH CH-CH H OH CH-CH OH

OH OH OH OH

C-C , . 6-, 5- C. 6- , . O2. , - .

2 . : . Oh C1 2: - 1 2, b- .

-(34%)> (2%)> - (64%)

. -. 1. - (II)

H-C-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH2 +HO >H-C-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH2 +2H2O

O OH OH OH OH OH HO Cu > O OH OH OH O O

Cu

H-C-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH2 >H2SO4, t CH2-CH-CH-CH-CH-CH-C-H

O OH OH OH OH OH O O O O O O O

+ COOH COOH COOH COOH COOH C C C C C C

CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3 O CH3 O CH3 O CH3 O CH3 O CH3 O

+ -ࠠ .

2. Cu2-(CHOH)4-C(=O,-H)+2Ag2O>t CH2(-OH)-(CHOH)4-C(=O,-OH)+2Ag

Cu2-(CHOH)4-C(=O,-H)+Cu(OH)2>t CH2-(CHOH)4-C(=O,-OH)+Cu2O+2H2O

-

3..: CH2-(CHOH)4-C(=O,-H)+H2>t, Ni CH2-(CHOH)4-CH2

C6H12O6>t 2C2H5OH+2CO2

C6H12O6>t 2CH3-CH( OH)-COOH

-

.1. (. )

C6H12O6+6O2>6CO2+H2O+Q

2.

3. -

4. -

5.

1.

1

4-

2. 蠠

3. ࠠ --

4. .

1861.- 蠠

1. - , 24Br2-4-

 H H

-. H-C-C-H

2. ⠠ H H

, () IV

38- CH3-CH2-CH3

3.- - .

4. . - - -.

CH3COOH -ࠠ CH2(-Cl)COOH- -

100

. : , .

- - . -, .

5. . .

6. . , - , - - .

: , .

H H H

14

1.H-N-CH2-C(=O,-OH)+H-N-CH2-C(=O,-OH)>H2N-CH2-C(=O)-N-CH2--C(=O,-OH)+H2O

CnH2n+2

R-OH R-(OH)n

19

CnH2n,

. /

CnH2n+1OH


11,12

R-C(=O,-H)

13,14 4

6

R-C(=O,-OH)

8 9

CnH2n-2 -. /

. /

17,18 3

27,28

R-C(=O,-O-R) R-C(=O,-O-R1)

7

CnH2n-2 - /

19,20

2

R-NH2

R NH R- N-R2

R1- R1-

25,26

15,16

CnH2n, -

1

23,24 21,22

-C-C(=O,-OH)

NH2


10

5

1. +NONO2>H2SO4, t +H2O; +6H> +2H2O

2. +Cl2>FeCl3 +HCl; +NaOH>t,p +NaCl

3.2CH4+3O2>.2H-C(=O,-OH)+2H2O

4.CH4+O2>t, .H-C(=O,-H)+H2O

5.CH4+Cl2>CH3Cl+HCl; CH3Cl+KOH>tCH3OH+KCl

6.C2H2+KOH>HgSO4CH3-C(=O,-H)

7.3C2H2>t, C C6H6

8.CH3-CH2OH+CuO>t CH3-C(=O,-H)+Cu+2H2O

9.CH3-C(=O,-H)+Ag2O>t CH3-C(=O,-OH)+2Ag

10.CH3-C(=O,-O-CH3)+HOH=t, H2SO4 CH3-C(=O,-OH)+CH3OH

CH3-C(=O,-OH)+Cl2>CH2-C(=O,-OH)+HCl

Cl

CH2-C(=O,-OH)+NH3>CH2-C(=O,-OH)+HCl

Cl NH2

11.CH3-CH3>Ni, t CH2=CH2+H2

12.CH2=CH2+H2>Ni CH3-CH3

13.2CH4>t C2H2+3H2

14.C2H2+2H2>Ni, t C2H6

15.C3H8+2Cl2> C3H6Cl2+2HCl

CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2 +Zn>t CH2 CH2 +ZnCl2

Cl Cl

16. CH2 +H2>Ni CH3

CH2 CH2

17.CH2=CH2>Ni, t CH=CH+H2

18.CH CH2+H2>Ni, t CH2=CH2

19.CH2=CH-CH2-CH3>t, MgO CH2=CH-CH=CH2

20.CH2=CH-CH=CH2+H2>Ni CH3-CH=CH-CH3

21.CH2=CH-CH=CH2+H2>Ni CH3-CH=CH-CH3

CH3-CH=CH-CH3+HOH>H2SO4, t CH3-CH( -OH)-CH2-CH3

22.2CH3-CH2-OH>t, Al2O3 CH2=CH-CH=CH2+2H2O+H2

23.CH3=CH-CH2+HOH>H2SO4, t CH3-CH(-OH)-CH3

24.CH3-CH( OH)-CH3>H2SO4, t CH2=CH-CH3

25. CH2

CH2 CH2 >Pt, t 3H2

CH2 CH2

CH2

26. +3H2>Ni, t

27.CH3-C(=O,-OH)+C2H5OH>t CH3-C(=O,-OC2H5)

28.CH3-C(=O,-OC2H5)+HOH>t CH3-C(=O,-OH)+C2H5OH

: Cn+H2n+1OH

:

- ,

,

6

OH.

()

2H6O

H H H H

H CC>O<H H-C-O-C-H

H H ߠ H H

-,

.

. -:

1.

,

-.

2.

:

2CH3-CH2-OH+2Na>2CH3-CH2-Ona+H2|

CH3-CH2-Ona+HOH= CH3-CH2-OH+NaOH

3. H2SO4

:

CH3-OH+H-CL>H2SO4CH3CL+H2O

4.

t

/:

H3C-CH2-OH>t>140CH2SO4H2C=CH2+H2O

t

:( )

5. :

H H

H-C-C-O-H+CuO>CH3-C-H=O+Cu+H2O

:

6.

7. . .

.-.1-11- P t .12-.

Mr .

:1.

2. -,.

3. .4.

:1. ,

, , .

: Cn+H2n+1OH

:

- ,

,

6

OH.

()

2H6O

H H H H

H CC>O<H H-C-O-C-H

H H ߠ H H

-,

.

. -:

1.

,

-.

2.

:

2CH3-CH2-OH+2Na>2CH3-CH2-Ona+H2|

CH3-CH2-Ona+HOH= CH3-CH2-OH+NaOH

3. H2SO4

:

CH3-OH+H-CL>H2SO4CH3CL+H2O

4.

t

/:

H3C-CH2-OH>t>140CH2SO4H2C=CH2+H2O

t

:( )

5. :

H H

H-C-C-O-H+CuO>CH3-C-H=O+Cu+H2O

:

6.

7. . .

.-.1-11- P t .12-.

Mr .

:1.

2. -,.

3. .4.

:1. ,

, , .

 


Copyright © 2005—2007 «RefStore.Ru»